Best Friends: Kellers ARCS and Gagne’s 9 Events:


Our job as instructional designers is to great engaging, results-oriented training that provides opportunities for on the job application. This week in class our focus was Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction and Keller’s ARCS.  These two instructional design strategies provide crucial design elements that produce a learner-centered performance based product that will improve organizational performance.

While Keller’s ARCS model focuses on the motivational aspects of instruction, there is a need to ensure that the learner is in some way oriented and receptive to incoming information so that continuous learning can take place.  This is where Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction comes into play. The Nine Events of instruction is used in the design of instruction.  This model is easily  incorporated within Gagne’s nine events of instructions.

John Keller created the ARCS model which described the motivating factors for learning to take place. These factors are:

  • A: Attention
  • R: Relevance
  • C: Confidence
  • S: Satisfaction

The content should grab the attention of the learner, be relevant to the participants needs, give them confidence during the learning process and give them  satisfaction of learning.

Keller never intended for his model to stand apart as a separate system for instructional design, but one that would be incorporated in accordance with instructional models and history such as Gagne’s events of instruction. Gagne’s nine learning events  should be the basis for designing instruction are:

  1. Grabbing attention
  2. Telling learners the objective of the course
  3. Stimulating recall of earlier learning
  4. Bringing forth the stimulus
  5. Offering guidance while learning
  6. Educing performance
  7. Providing feedback
  8. Rating performance
  9. Enhancing retention and transfer

Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction are grounded in the belief that a variety of internal and external conditions must be present for learning to occur and that learning results in observable behavior. He believed that learning involves a sequence of steps to transform information and that instruction should be a set of external events that influences or supports the internal process of learning.  Ultimately, the observable behavior is the result of the internal process of learning.

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About IPTtoolkit--Eboni DuBose

Hi!! I'm Eboni. A Masters Candidate in the Instructional and Technology program at Boise State. Come along and join in on my learning experiences. I look forward to having wonderful conversations from other learning professinals
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